Jednoduchý bulharský slovník7. prosinec 2013
Chystáte se do Bulharska? V tom případě byste měli znát základní informace o této zemi. Jazyková bariéra patří nepochybně mezi základní problém turistů, neboť bulharsky se domluví skutečně jen málokdo. Můžete zde samozřejmě uplatnit znalost světových jazyků, jako je angličtina, němčina, ruština nebo francouzština. Mnoho tamních obyvatel vám dokonce bude rozumět i česky. Samozřejmě to bude domluva rukama nohama a lámanou češtinou. Ovšem pár základních bulharských frází se vám rozhodně neztratí.
Jde o indoevropský jazyk, který se řadí do skupiny slovanských jazyků. Náleží do Balkánské jazykové unie, kam patří také rumunština, řečtina, albánština a částečně i srbština.
Původně se bulharština psala hlaholicí, kterou v 9. století nahradila cyrilice. Zvláštností tohoto jazyka je používání členů a neznalost pádů u podstatných a přídavných jmen. Tento jev nemá v dalších slovanských jazycích obdoby. Má určitý člen, podobně, jako je tomu v anglickém nebo německém jazyce.
Pokud tedy znáte cyrilici, tak pro vás psaná bulharština nebude složitá. Pro správnou výslovnost je třeba znát přesné místo přízvuků. Každý slovník přízvuk označuje. Jestliže umíte rusky, pak s tímto jazykem nebudete mít velký problém.
da = ano
ne = ne (pozor: v případě „da“ se kroutí hlavou, v případě „ne“ se kývá)
zdravéj = ahoj
dobró útro = dobré ráno
dóbъr den =dobrý den
dobъr večer = dobrý večer
leka nošt = dobrou noc
dovíždane = na shledanou
čáo = hovorově, pokud se loučíte
kak si? / kak ste = jak se máš? / jak se máte?
kak e? – jak to jde? (e se opravdu vyslovuje jako e, nikoli je)
obíčam te = miluji tě
útre = zítra (šte se vídim útre – uvidíme se zítra)
kakvó e tová? = co to je?
kolko = kolik (kolko strúva – kolik stojí)
Bulharština patří mezi jazyky, které mají za sebou bohatý historický vývoj. O starobulharštiny až po moderní bulharštinu. Není to jazyk, který se ve školách běžně učí, nicméně pokud ovládáte ruštinu, nebudete mít problém se s Bulhary domluvit. Mnohdy si ovšem vystačíte s rodným jazykem.
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Autor: Martina Richterová
Autorka žije v Praze, kde vystudovala Management cestovního ruchu. Ve volném čase se věnuje psaní článků, cestování a četbě. Je maminkou tříletého syna. Kontaktovat ji můžete přes Google+
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